Seaweeds are some of the largest makers of biomass in the sea environment and so are abundant with bioactive substances that tend to be used for human being and animal wellness
Seaweeds are some of the largest makers of biomass in the sea environment and so are abundant with bioactive substances that tend to be used for human being and animal wellness. . A lot of research possess uncovered the anti-cancer actions of seaweeds and several seaweed-derived compounds which have been been shown to be effective through multiple systems like the inhibition of tumor cell growth, metastasis and invasiveness aswell while from the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. A number of the chemicals have already been developed into medicines for tumor treatment [3,14,15,16,17]. Lately, organic substances extracted from sea algae have already been proposed as effective in inhibiting Staurosporine tumor growth, adhesion, invasion, and migration . Polyphenols and sulfated polysaccharides are the predominant belongings of seaweed, possessing an array of pharmacological properties . Polysaccharides are found in the intracellular space and in the fibrillar cell walls of seaweeds . Recently, considerable attention has been focused on polysaccharides isolated from natural sources. Such polysaccharides, which are the main storage compounds in seaweed, are polymers of hexoses or other monosaccharides with antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-coagulant, and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely included in commercial products [18,19,20]. Small differences in structures in these polysaccharides determine their distinctive properties. These large molecules are divided into either homopolysaccharides or homoglycans and heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans. Both are distinguished by a monomeric unit, which is of only one kind in the former such as cellulose and starch, or two or more kinds in the latter. Additionally, the polymers are divided into brown, red, green, and blue polysaccharides, according to the type of seaweed from which they are derived. The former two polysaccharides have attracted more attention and are widely Rabbit Polyclonal to NUP160 applied. Alginic acid, fucoidan (sulfated fucose), and laminaran (-1,3 glucan) are derived from brown seaweed. Agars, carrageenans, xylans, floridean starch (amylopectin-like glucan), water-soluble sulfated galactans, and porphyrans are from red algae. Green seaweeds contain sulfuric acid polysaccharides, sulfated galactans, and xylans. Seaweed polysaccharides are diverse and characteristic Staurosporine of specific species and vary Staurosporine with season. Up to 76% of the dry weight is polysaccharide in some genera such as . This review attempts to review the current study of anti-cancer activity and the possible mechanism of porphyran and carrageenan derived from red seaweeds to various cancers, and their cooperative action with other anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents is also discussed. The keywords, red seaweed, cancer, polysaccharide, porphyran, and carrageenan were searched in Google Scholar and Web of Science in the period between 1980 and 2019. 2. Anti-Cancer Activity from Red Seaweeds Edible red seaweeds have been considered as a healthy and beneficial food in Asia such as Japan, China, Thailand, and South Korea for a Staurosporine long time. Red seaweed cultivation has significantly grown rapidly since the early 20th century due to the continuous increase in demand for food and industry . and are the main species largely cultivated in Indonesia and China. Bioactive compounds of seaweeds are synthesized in accordance with seaweed growth stage and the ability to interact with environmental changes such as radiation, drinking water pressure, and salinity . Phycobiliproteins, carotenoids, pigments, terpenes, polyphenols, phlorotannins, and polysaccharides will be the main contributors to seaweeds, with different quantities and types in various varieties [3,11,22]. Terpenes, polysaccharides, and polyphenols are of main interest for his or her anti-cancer activity [2,3,23]. The anti-cancer ramifications of seaweed could possibly be as nutrition and cytotoxic properties . Like a nutrient.