Background Hemostatic alterations occur during the development of cancer. indicated that

Background Hemostatic alterations occur during the development of cancer. indicated that this plasma D-dimer levels Rabbit polyclonal to EPM2AIP1 could effectively stratify patient prognosis for early malignancy, advanced stage malignancy, and patients with EBV DNA 4000 copies/ml. Conclusions High D-dimer levels were associated with poor disease-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, overall survival, and increased risk of mortality in NPC patients. Prospective trials are required to assess the prognostic value of D-dimer levels. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-583) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Keywords: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, D-dimer, Survival Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in southern China, southeastern Asia, and northern Africa. The lowest prevalence of NPC is found in white populations from Europe and the United States [1C3]. Radiotherapy regimens are currently the primary treatment strategy for NPC patients. Even though TNM staging system [4] is currently the most powerful prognostic factor for NPC, patients with the same stage and comparable treatment regimens possess variable clinical final results. The appearance of several specific biological markers have been used to provide additional prognostic information for NPC patients, including epidermal growth factor receptor [5], serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [6], C-reactive protein (CRP) [7], and plasma Epstein-Barr computer virus DNA (EBV DNA) [8]. Several studies have investigated pre-treatment EBV DNA, which is used for disease monitoring and prognosis prediction in the medical center [8C10]. Several studies have suggested an association between a more aggressive malignancy phenotype and hypercoagulability [11, 12]. Interestingly, in the absence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the systemic activation of blood coagulation and procoagulant changes in the hemostatic system are frequently been observed in malignancy patients [13, 14]. Patients with malignancy and hypercoagulation have a higher risk of venous Polyphyllin VI IC50 thrombosis and a poor prognosis [15]. It has been reported that many increased or decreased coagulation factors contribute to malignancy growth, progression and Polyphyllin VI IC50 metastasis [16]. The plasma D-dimer is usually a stable end product of fibrin degradation, and Polyphyllin VI IC50 it is a useful biomarker for predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE) in malignancy patients [17]. Increased D-dimer levels are related to tumour stage, tumour prognosis and lymph node involvement. Additionally, D-dimer levels are a unfavorable prognostic indicator for several malignancies, including breast [18], colorectal [19], lung [20], and prostate malignancy [21]. Elevated D-dimer levels may reflect multifactorial interactions between carcinoma growth and the hemostatic-fibrinolytic system in malignancy. However, the clinical significance of D-dimer in nasopharyngeal carcinoma has not Polyphyllin VI IC50 been established. The purpose of this study was to analyse the prognostic value of plasma D-dimer levels in patients with NPC and evaluate the correlation between pre-treatment plasma D-dimer levels and clinical-pathological parameters. The results of our study will help predict NPC progression in patients and provide information for further treatment. Methods Patient selection The principal inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) biopsy-proven main NPC, no radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or oncologic surgery history, and an ECOG of 0 to 2; (2) patient age 18?years; (3) adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function (white blood cell count of??4000/?L, platelet count number of 100000/UL, serum creatinine clearance??50?mL/min, total serum bilirubin focus?

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