Background Low back pain (LBP) could be influenced by socio-cultural factors.

Background Low back pain (LBP) could be influenced by socio-cultural factors. included: a) ways of perceiving and expressing painthe participants focused constantly on their pain and anything outside it was considered secondary; b) the socio-familial environment as a modulator of painmost participants stated that no one was able to understand the pain they were experiencing; c) religion as a modulator of painall Brazilian patients stated that religious belief affected the experience of pain; and d) socio-economic and educational status as a modulator of painthe study reported that economic factors influenced the experience of pain. Conclusions The influences of LBP can be determined based on the how a patient defines pain. Religion can be considered as a possible mechanism for patients to manage pain and as a form of solace. Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is a significant health care problem, where the 1-year prevalence for LBP ranges from 22% to 65% [1]. The economic burden of LBP involves high annual compensation costs, [2] and the impact of LBP on individuals can lead to a loss of health status in the form of loss of function and disability [3]. There is also evidence that LBP generally coexists 193611-72-2 manufacture with other medical conditions, such as depression and anxiety [4]. In Brazil, during 2002C2010, the 3-month prevalence of chronic LBP increased from 4.2% to 9.6%, which was partly due to an increase in the countrys life expectancy [5]. In Spain, the prevalence of LBP is around 20% and has remained unvaried during the last 5-year period [6]. In both countries, LBP has been associated with women, increasing age, and the lack of physical activity [5, 7]. Several social factors may also have an influence on LBP, such as earnings, ethnicity, access to health care [8] and low education levels [9]. Additionally, biomechanical factors, such as working in uncomfortable postures can also contribute to LBP [5]; all of these factors increase pain and disability [10]. Furthermore, low social support for chronic LBP is associated with a decrease in family support for the patient, the modification of family 193611-72-2 manufacture roles, partner dissatisfaction and frustration [3, 11]. Culture [12, 13], attitudes [14C16], beliefs and religion [17, 18] also seem to play an important role in LBP. Finally, social and cultural factors may be important in functional recovery as they affect the decisions made by the patients. How patients choose to cope with LBP [8, 13] can lead health professionals to construct erroneous stereotypes regarding certain minorities with chronic LBP [19], which could lead to discrepancies in diagnosis and treatment [20]. Designing studies that reflect the perspective of a patient with LBP would considerable help in understanding the suffering associated with the disease [14], and the implications it has on the patients life [21C23]. Moreover, these studies would assist professionals in the decision-making process to treat LBP [24C26], and in understanding the 193611-72-2 manufacture patients expectations regarding their treatment [4, 27C29], and their respective recovery [16, 30C31]. Also, the effect of disability associated with LBP [32], and the relevance of factors, such as culture, beliefs and the patients daily social environment could be ascertained [3, 12, 19]. In 2011, the Global Burden Study [32] reported that LBP was ranked Rabbit polyclonal to Chk1.Serine/threonine-protein kinase which is required for checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest and activation of DNA repair in response to the presence of DNA damage or unreplicated DNA.May also negatively regulate cell cycle progression during unperturbed cell cycles.This regulation is achieved by a number of mechanisms that together help to preserve the integrity of the genome. as the greatest contributor to global disability in Western 193611-72-2 manufacture Europe and South America (measured in the number of years lived with disability). Although both regions ranked N 1 in the study, presenting similar values, the meaning of LBP varied among the locations. The description and comparison of the different perspectives of patients with LBP, either of Spanish [33] or Brazilian origin [34], would allow to understand the importance of different.

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