Background The surgical insult induces an inflammatory response that activates P38

Background The surgical insult induces an inflammatory response that activates P38 MAP kinases and solid tumours can also release cytokines. (75.2 8.4% vs. 100 4.3%, p < 0.05) and G1 cell cycle phase(35.9 1.1% vs. 32.5 0.6%, p < 0.05) but no significant changes in apoptosis or VEGF levels. In-vivo, P38-MAPK inhibition resulted in an increase in primary tumour growth (155.6 34.9 vs. 86.7 18.2 mm3, p < 0.05). P38-MAPK inhibition also lowered circulating VEGF levels but this difference was not significant (101.9 27.1 g/ml compared to 158.6 27.1 g/ml) Conclusion These findings demonstrate that P38-MAPK inhibition in-vitro reduces proliferation and G1 cell cycle phase as well as promoting primary tumour growth in-vivo. These effects would appear to be independent of VEGF. Background P38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) are 38-kDa intracellular signal transduction proteins comprising four variants; p38 , , and . Together with c-Jun, amino-terminal 284028-90-6 kinase and p42/44 MAPK, p38-MAPK forms the MAPK family[1]. MAPK are activated by phosphorylation by MAPK kinases (MKK), as part of intracellular signalling cascades at which diverse extracellular stimuli converge to initiate cellular responses. An important role of MAPK is its activation by a wide variety of stimuli including cytokines, endotoxin, BLP and other stresses, which can ultimately result in the activation of NF-B[2]. Similarly, as with NF-B, p38-MAPK has been implicated as a critical mediator of the release of proinflammatory cytokines and positively regulates the expression of a variety of genes involved in the acute phase response such as TNF-, IL-6 and other inducible enzymes involved in malignant transformation such as VEGF, ERGF and AP-1[3,4]. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines has been reported to promote tumour cell proliferation, host angiogenesis, inflammation and catabolism in animal models and in cancer patients. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been described in cell line supernatants, tumour specimens and serum of patients with cancer[5,6]. Activation of the MAPK pathway has been shown in the malignant transformation of in-vitro cell lines and in in-vivo models of colon cancer[7,8]. P38-MAPK activation has been demonstrated in many human cancers but the findings have not been consistent[9]. Some studies have failed to find MAPK activation whereas others have demonstrated NFB, p38 and JNK activation in colonic polyps[10]. Again as with colon cancer there have been variable reports of p38-MAPK 284028-90-6 activation in gastric cancer[11]. However, in human non-small cell lung cancer p38-MAPK appears to be constitutively activated and as a result could have an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of certain human cancers[9]. As result p38-MAPK, as a critical mediator of cellular responses, is a suitable candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy for targeting the malignant potential of tumours. Therefore, in the present study we set out to investigate the role of 284028-90-6 p38-MAPK inhibition using specific p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB-202190) on apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle and VEGF release in-vitro and on tumour growth in-vivo. Methods Reagents DMEM, PBS, fetal calf serum, penicillin, streptomycin sulphate, and L-glutamine were purchased from Life Technologies (Paisley, Scotland). Propidine iodine (PI), DMSO, PMSF, Nonidet P-40, DTT, HEPES, Rabbit Polyclonal to GPR146 MgCl2, KCL, NaCl, sodium citrate, Tris, Triton X-100, and EDTA were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). SN50 and RNase were purchased from Calbiochem (San Diego, CA) and Roche (East Sussex, UK), respectively. SB-202190, 1 mg of dry powder was diluted with 3.02 mls of DMSO and maintained as a stock solution of 1 1 mM at -20C. 10 l of this solution was diluted in 10 mls of culture media to obtain a 1 M working solution and this solution was further diluted.

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