Characterisation of strains from ticks is important in the epidemiological surveillance
Characterisation of strains from ticks is important in the epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens. Ticks are considered important carriers of pathogenic microorganisms in the northern hemisphere , andIxodes ricinusticks are associated with a diverse microbiota .Borreliaspirochetes are one of the pathogens transmitted to humans byI. ricinusticks , andBorrelia burgdorferisensu lato (s.l.) represents a bacterial species complex that comprises severalBorreliagenospecies associated with Lyme borreliosis (LB) .Borrelia burgdorferisensu stricto (s.s.),Borrelia afzelii,andBorrelia gariniiare causative agents of human LB in Norway , and the prevalence of LB is monitored by the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). A fourthBorreliagenospecies,Borrelia valaisiana,was discovered in Norwegian ticks in 2010 2010 . These four genospecies have been detected inI. ricinusticks in northwest Norway . During the recent years, several genotyping methods have been established for analysis ofBorreliato characterise strains and determine the phylogenetic relationships between strains [7C11]. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a molecular typing tool that is used to characterise pathogenic microorganisms , and MLST can be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and tracking of infectious diseases . MLST, as defined by Urwin and Maiden, is a genotyping tool based on the sequences of housekeeping genes that evolve slowly. The sequences used for MLST are approximately 400C500?bp in size and are located throughout the genome to avoid bias . Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) applies MLST to characterise closely related species using a distance-based procedure for phylogenetic characterisation, and it includes pairwise genetic similarities. MLST/MLSA have been Naringenin supplier applied in population studies and for analysis ofBorreliaspecies in geographic areas and for evolutionary studies and characterisation of newBorreliaspecies. While some MLST/MLSA schemes combine housekeeping genes with hypervariable regions and noncoding loci Tgfb3 [9C11], the MLST scheme published in 2008 by Margos et al. is based on housekeeping genes that fulfill the strict criteria defined by Urwin and Maiden [7, 13]. TheBorreliaMLST scheme is based on Naringenin supplier amplification, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis of internal fragments of eight housekeeping genes (anduvrABorreliaMLST scheme is available through the MLST network (http://www.mlst.net/). The MLST network enables easy access to sequences from all over the world . Recently, studies of phylogenetic relationship ofBorreliagenospecies using MLSA have resulted in the definition of two newBorrelia Borrelia bavariensissp.  andBorrelia kurtenbachii. These new findings demonstrate the high discriminatory power that MLST/MLSA schemes provide. Rudenko et al. utilised MLST to describe recombination at thenifSlocus amongB. burgdorferis.s. andBorrelia americanastrains. Their findings indicated that, to a degree, strain diversity is influenced by the host . The aim of this study is to utilise MLSA to characteriseBorreliastrains isolated fromI. ricinusticks collected from the fauna in northwest Norway. Multilocus sequence analysis of Norwegian strains could provide knowledge about the strain diversity amongBorrelia I. ricinusticks collected in 2012 (531 nymphs/71 adults) and 2013 (539 nymphs/64 adults) (Figure 1) was isolated, and the DNA samples were analysed by qPCR to detect the presence ofBorreliagenospecies as previously described . A total of 86 samples (79 nymphs/7 adults) were positive forBorreliain 2012, and 89 samples (83 nymphs/8 adults) were positive forBorreliain 2013. Multilocus sequence analysis was performed using the MLST scheme developed by Margos et al. A total of 50 samples were amplified across all eight housekeeping genes (anduvrAanduvrAclpA, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG,anduvrAas previously described [7, 8]. Amplification ofclpXandrplBwas performed with primers described by Margos et al. combined with a nested touchdown PCR composed of 1 cycle of denaturation (10?min, 95C), followed Naringenin supplier by 9 cycles of denaturation (30?sec, 95C), touchdown annealing (30?sec, 58CC50C), and extension (1?min, 72C) and 30 cycles of denaturation.