Discussion Lung cancer is the most responsible for cancer-associated death, causing approximately 1
Discussion Lung cancer is the most responsible for cancer-associated death, causing approximately 1.6 million deaths per year. and Fexinidazole its downstream target pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), were evaluated. The CNM and hyperthermia Fexinidazole combination increased the generation of ROS and MAPK phosphorylation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a ROS inhibitor, abolished the apoptotic events caused by CNM and hyperthermia co-treatment, suggesting that this cytotoxic effect was dependent of ROS signaling. Therefore, we suggest CNM and hyperthermia combination as an effective therapeutic option for the NSCLC treatment. 0.01, *** 0.001 vs. 37 C + 0 M group; ?? 0.01 vs. 42 C + 0 M group; ## 0.01, ### 0.001 vs. 43 C + 0 M group; (b) The combination index on cytotoxicity effect was decided using CompuSyn Software; (c) a clonogenic assay was performed by staining cells with Crystal violet staining; (d) morphological changes reflecting apoptosis were visualized under a regular light microscope (magnification 100); (e) wound Fexinidazole healing assays were performed; (f) the live and lifeless cell portion was determined by Trypan blue staining. * 0.05, ** 0.01, *** 0.001 vs. control group; ### 0.001 vs. 43 C + 0 M group. 2.2. Combination Therapy of CNM and Hyperthermia Increases Apoptosis Markers and Suppresses Survival Markers in A549 Cells The expression levels of the factors related to apoptosis, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis were next examined to verify the action mechanism of CNM and hyperthermia co-treatment. As a result, co-treatment with CNM 200 M and hyperthermia of 43 C induced the cleavage of caspase-3 (Physique 3a), which is the final step in programmed apoptosis . On the other hand, such an effect was not observed under the 37 C condition. Further proteins in the apoptosis pathway were investigated by additional Western blot assays. In line with the result of cleaved caspase-3, the level of caspase-9 expression decreased in a dose-dependent manner, but only by the CNM and 43 C hyperthermia co-treatment (Physique 3a). In addition, the anti-apoptotic users of the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Survivin , were also suppressed by the combination treatment of CNM and 43 C (Physique 3b). Western blot assays were conducted to determine if heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was involved in the action of CNM and hyperthermia. The results show that CNM co-treatment reversed the increase in HSP70 expression in response to hyperthermia (Physique 3c). Moreover, the CNM and hyperthermia Fexinidazole co-treatment regulated the cell cycle while reducing the metastatic potential of A549 cells. This was illustrated by the inhibition of the expression of Cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 by the combination of CNM and 43 C hyperthermia (Physique 3d). Open in a separate window Physique 3 Effect of CNM and hyperthermia combination therapy around the protein levels of apoptosis and survival markers in A549 cells. A549 cells were treated with CNM (0, 150 or 200 M) with or without hyperthermia and incubated for 24 h. Whole-cell extracts were prepared, then equivalent concentrations of lysates were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Protein expression of (a) caspase-3, caspase-9, (b) Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Survivin, (c) HSP70, (d) Cyclin D1, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was measured using Western blot assays. -actin was used as a loading control. Representative blots are shown. 2.3. Combination of CNM and Hyperthermia Induces Apoptosis by Arresting Cell Cycle in A549 Cells Cell cycle arrest is closely related to the induction of apoptosis and is frequently used as the therapeutic target of anti-cancer brokers . Circulation cytometry analyses were carried out to determine if cell cycle arrest also occurs in the action mechanism of CNM and hyperthermia combination treatment. CNM with hyperthermia treatment of 43 C increased the Annexin Rabbit Polyclonal to 14-3-3 gamma V-associated apoptotic profile of A549 cells. The CNM treatment at 37 C increased the rate of apoptosis from 8.97% to 25.24%, but when combined with hyperthermia, the number of apoptotic cells grew to 46.93% of the total cells (Figure 4a). In addition, as shown in Physique 4b, when the mitochondrial membrane potential of A549 cells was measured to determine the changes in the.