Etheno-DNA adducts are generated through the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and

Etheno-DNA adducts are generated through the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous lipid peroxidation. dC) in human urine of occupational benzene-exposed and non-exposed workers (fmol/mol creatine) *. 4. Discussion Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are implicated in multistage carcinogenesis. Etheno adducts are formed in DNA bases after reaction with aldehydes, such as trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), generated during oxidative stress as lipid peroxidation-end products. These DNA adducts are believed to be important in the etiology of cancer [1,2,3,4,5,6]. Existing methods for quantifying DNA adducts use 32P-postlabeling; although highly sensitive, postlabeling requires the use Rabbit Polyclonal to Cytochrome P450 39A1 of an energetic radioisotope and considerable time and effort [15,22,23]. The LC-MS/MS methodology reported everywhere permits automated quantification of trace levels of DNA adducts. Therefore, we now report a new ultrasensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of dA and dC adducts in human urine. Our method is based on the effective purification and enrichment of dA and dC in human urine samples; hereby, solid-phase silica column chromatography has been developed that allows an efficient parting of dA and dC adducts through the urinary matrix. The total buy Angiotensin III (human, mouse) sensitivities of our technique were found to become 0.5 fmoles of dA and 0.3 fmoles of dC detectable in 1.0 mL of human being urine, thus being truly a magnitude greater than the currently reported GC/NICI/MS method having a level of sensitivity of 12 fmoles of dC in 0.1 mL buy Angiotensin III (human, mouse) urine [20]. For enrichment and purification of etheno-DNA adducts from regular nucleosides in human being urine, Relationship Elut LC18-OH (Agilent, 500 mg, 3 mL) and Oasis HLB (Waters, 220 mg, 6 mL) silica-phase columns had been used, respectively, to accomplish a competent enrichment of etheno-DNA adducts from human being urine. The Relationship Elut LC18-OH silica-phase column was been shown to be valid for achieving a better recovery of etheno-DNA adducts from urine matrix. For validating the reliability of our method, [15N5]-dA and [15N3]-dC were added to each buy Angiotensin III (human, mouse) urine sample as internal standards, allowing correction of the recovery. Results on the intra- and inter-assay variability revealed a high reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, our ultrasensitive method appears to be superior to other methods reported in terms of: (1) high sensitivity and specificity; (2) low amounts of urine sample required; (3) capability to detect background levels of etheno adducts in human urine; and (4) high-throughput and reliable monitoring of the disease-related increase of these substances in patients. A series of studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that etheno-DNA adducts are among the ideal markers for DNA damage produced endogenously as a result of persistent oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) [9,10,11,12,13,14]. There is increasing evidence for a role of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the etiology of human cancers and the development buy Angiotensin III (human, mouse) of other chronic degenerative diseases. The development and application of sensitive and specific detection methods for this class of DNA-adducts should provide valuable tools for investigating their role in human disease pathogenesis and its preventability. Acknowledgements The research work was supported by National Natural Foundation of China (NSFC) (30771790) and the National Science and Technology Infrastructure Program (2013BAI12B03). Author Contributions Xin Sun designed the scholarly study and drafted the manuscript. Shiwei Cui, Haibin Li, Shaojia Xiao and Wang Jiang conducted the laboratory analysis and created all dining tables and numbers. Rongjie Shusheng and Zhang Zhang contributed to drafting from the manuscript. All authors authorized and browse the last manuscript. Conflicts appealing The writers declare no turmoil of interest.

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