Introduction Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been used in a wide

Introduction Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been used in a wide variety of preclinical experiments and in an increasing number of human clinical trials. factors and no human-origin mRNA or protein synthesis in transplanted tissues. More importantly, despite the lack of robust engraftment or growth factor secretion the transplantation procedure exerted a significant pro-angiogenic and pro-proliferative effect, which we showed was mediated by angiogenic and mitogenic signaling pathways. Discussion Our results show an immediate temporal 119193-37-2 tissue effect in response to MSC transplantation that may represent a novel indirect paracrine mechanism for the beneficial effects of 119193-37-2 cell transplantation observed in injured tissues. model. Of direct relevance to our study, adult tissue derived MSCs have been shown to contribute to recovery from ischemic injury PCK1 in rodent hind limb ischemia model (13C17). However, in these studies the overall engraftment levels vary largely, which may be due to the tissue of origin of MSCs, the culture conditions used to isolate MSCs, the type of injury model used, and the degree of injury (18C21). Furthermore, several and studies have shown that injection of MSC culture conditioned medium containing MSC-derived growth factors and cytokines can decrease apoptosis, improve cardiac function, and increase angiogenesis pointing to the myriad of beneficial properties of MSCs irrespective of their engraftment potential (13, 22, 23). Thus, it is now generally accepted that there is no single property but a variety of mechanisms, including paracrine 119193-37-2 effects of transplanted cells, which can explain many of the favorable results reported. In the current work we utilized hESC-derived MSCs and adult human BM-derived MSCs to track the distribution and physiological effect of MSCs immediately after local transplantation into rat hind limb ischemia model. We used bioluminescence imaging (BLI) analysis and fluorescence microscopy for tracking of the cells, studied the angiogenic and cell proliferative effect of transplanted cells, and investigated their potential in growth factor synthesis in injured tissue. Methods Virus production and hESC-derived MSC transduction GFP or luciferase lentiviruses were produced by calcium-phosphate transfection in HEK293T using pWPXLd, psPAX2 and pMD2G plasmids (Addgene, MA, USA). hESC-derived MSCs were transduced with MOI 3 for GFP lentivirus and MOI 20 for Luciferase lentivirus. Cells were cultured for several days and washed before transplantation procedure. The presence of senescent cells was checked with Senescence -Galactosidase Staining Kit (Cell Signaling, MA, USA) by counting an average of 300 cells from 3 different cell culture dishes. The ratio of blue to normal cells represents the percentage of senescence. Animals and the surgical procedure Five to six weeks old male Fisher 344 rats, 86C115 g weight (Harlan, Netherlands) (n=4 in each group) were used in this study. The animals were anesthetized with fentanyl-fluanisone (370 g/100 g) (Janssen Pharmaceutica, Beerse, Belgium) and midazolame (180 g/100 g) (Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Hind limb ischemic injury was induced by ligation of the femoral artery, lateral circumflex femoral artery, popliteal artery, and the saphenous artery. All animals received daily injections of Cyclosporin A (1 mg/100 g) (Fluka Biochemica, Buchs, Switzerland). Animals were transplanted with intramuscular injection of either 1 106 Luc+ hESC-derived MSCs and followed with BLI for 24 hours, or 0.5 106 GFP+ hESC-derived MSCs for immunohistochemistry analysis at 72-hour time point. The transplantation was done 24 hours after ligation of the vessels with 5 separate injections into femoral biceps muscle, semitendinous muscle, semimembranous muscle and adductor muscle. As controls we used non-injured animals, injured animals that were not transplanted, injured animals that received sonicated cell homogenate, injured animals that received primary BM-derived MSCs, and injured animals that received fixed hESC-derived MSCs. A small volume of cells was saved and plated into culture dishes at the time of transplantation to check the viability of MSCs. The experimental animal committee of the University of Turku approved all experimental procedures. Sonication and fixation The hESC-derived MSCs were disrupted by sonication with Labsonic U (B. BRAUN, Melsungen, Germany) at 20 kHz frequency for three seconds. Disrupted cells were injected into injured tissues (0.5 106 cells/rat in 150 l.

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