Study Objectives: To compare the craniofacial morphological phenotype of subjects with
Study Objectives: To compare the craniofacial morphological phenotype of subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using a quantitative photographic analysis technique. = 0.01) remained larger in the OSA group, whereas (39.2 0.63 41.7 0.74 cm2, P = 0.01) was smaller. Conclusions: Craniofacial phenotypic variations in OSA in Caucasian subjects can be shown using a photographic analysis technique. Citation: Lee RWW; Chan ASL; Grunstein RR; Cistulli PA. Craniofacial phenotyping in obstructive sleep apnea C a novel quantitative photographic approach. 2009;32(1):37C45. was aligned along the subject alignment plane while ensuring both ears were seen 1429651-50-2 IC50 equally from the front. For the profile picture, the subject was instructed to turn 90 degrees to the left after the frontal picture was taken. This was aided by a laser pointer head-clip and calibrated markings on the Rabbit polyclonal to EIF1AD side wall to ensure the profile views were perpendicular to the frontal views. The subject’s mid-sagittal aircraft was aligned to the subject alignment plane. Number 1 Photographic Landmarks C Profile and Frontal Look at. Landmarks pre-identified on subject (marked having a white tape): C infraorbital 1429651-50-2 IC50 rim; C mentum; C thyroid; C cricoid; C sternal notch; … Using image analysis software (Image J v1.36, NIH, Bethesda, MD), the photographs were examined for landmark digitization. Craniofacial landmarks of interest were captured as pixel coordinates (was related between the 2 organizations. Mandible and MaxillaThe length of the mandible was shorter in the subjects with OSA (was higher in the OSA subjects. HeadThe vertical or anteroposterior lengths of the head were not different between subjects with OSA and settings ((P = 0.001) and (P = 0.002) remained shorter; (P = 0.006), (P = 0.004) and (P = 0.01) remained smaller, in the OSA group. The (P = 0.005) and (P = 0.01) remained larger in the OSA group. In contrast to the primary analysis, the (P = 0.01) was smaller in the OSA group. Table 3 Craniofacial Photogrammetry C Subgroup Analysis 1-for-1 Matched for BMI and Sex Relationship to Obesity Linear associations between craniofacial photogrammetry and anthropometric steps of obesity were examined in the entire cohort of 180 subjects. Other than the photographic measurements relating directly to the neck (e.g., etc.), the (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), (r = 0.58, P < 0.001) and (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) had the strongest associations with BMI. Similarly, the and experienced the strongest associations with neck circumference (r[face width] = 0.76, P < 0.001; r[mandible width] = 0.76, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (r[face width] = 0.66, P < 0.001; r[mandible width] = 0.70, P < 0.001). Relationship to OSA Severity Linear associations between craniofacial photogrammetry and OSA severity were also examined in the entire cohort of subjects. The strongest associations were shown with the (r = 0.51, P < 0.001), (r = 0.50, P < 1429651-50-2 IC50 0.001), (r = 0.49, P < 0.001), (Figure 2a; r = 0.49, P < 0.001), (Figure 2b; r = 0.45, P < 0.001) and (Number 2c; r = 0.45, P < 0.001). After controlling for BMI, these positive associations remained (e.g., [r = 0.36, P < 0.001], [r = 0.28, P < 0.001]). Number 2 Associations between OSA Severity (Log [AHI + 1]) and Craniofacial Photographic Measurements Standardized Photographic Technique Validation Landmark digitization accuracy and test-retest reliability were assessed 1429651-50-2 IC50 in 20 subjects who completed the photographic imaging on two independent occasions with photogrammetry 1429651-50-2 IC50 performed on independent days for each set of photographs. The overall mean coefficient of variance (CV) was 3.45% and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.96 for all the.