Vertical profiles of the abundance community composition and potential activity of
Vertical profiles of the abundance community composition and potential activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) were investigated in the sediment of Lake Biwa. significantly differ with sediment depths or sampling sites. Sequence analysis of the DGGE bands indicated the dominance of the genus gene copy number cannot be regarded as an indication of aerobic MOB that retain potential activity in sediments. gene which encodes the alpha subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. This gene is definitely specific to MOB and gene-based phylogeny is almost consistent with the phylogeny based on the 16S rRNA gene (8). The gene has been used as a useful biomarker for qualitative and quantitative analysis of MOB areas in various environments (19). Many earlier studies reported MOB areas in lake sediments (gene copy quantity and methane oxidation rate were highest at 2-3 cm sediment depth although oxygen penetrated to only 0.35 cm in the sediment core. This might be explained from the supply of an undetectable amount of oxygen to deeper layers but further field observation and additional experiments are required to test this hypothesis. There are only a few studies on depth-related changes in the large quantity and activity of MOB in lake sediment. HSA272268 In the present study vertical profiles of large quantity community composition and potential activity of MOB were investigated in the sediment of Lake Biwa Japan. With this lake approximately 90% from the methane stated in the anoxic sediment is normally aerobically consumed on the sediment surface area prior to the methane diffuses towards the drinking water column (20). In the sediment of the lake the aerobic area is fixed to the top (13-15) but rRNA of type I MOB was discovered in more deeply sediment (14). Components and Methods Test collection and techniques Samples had been extracted from Lake Biwa a mesotrophic monomictic freshwater lake situated in central Japan. Tubacin The complete water column is oxic through the entire full year. Sampling was performed on 6 Sept 2004 by R/V at two sites (site A 35 N 136 E 90 m drinking water depth; site Sh 35 N 136 E 40 m drinking water depth) where some research had been executed previously (13-15). One sediment primary (4.5 cm in size) was extracted from each site without troubling the sediment structure as defined previously (13). The cores had been used in the laboratory within a cooled container. In the lab each primary was sliced up at 0-2 cm and at 3-cm intervals thereafter downwards to a depth of 14 cm. Part of each sediment sample was kept frozen at ?30°C until DNA extraction. Methane concentration in each section was determined by headspace analysis (13). Tubacin Potential activity of aerobic methane oxidation An aliquot (0.5 mL) of each sediment sample and 2 mL distilled water were transferred to a 20 mL vial. The slurry was vortexed for 90 s while introducing ambient air flow with an air pump to supply a sufficient amount of oxygen. After aeration Tubacin the vials were sealed having a butyl plastic stopper. Methane concentrations in the gaseous phase were modified to approximately 1 0 ppmv. These vials were incubated at 15°C Tubacin with shaking (approximately 200 rpm). At each time point (0 24 37 45 62 87 and 214 h after the initiation of incubation) methane concentrations in the vial were identified using gas chromatography (GC-8A; Shimadzu Kyoto Japan) equipped with a flame ionization detector. As a negative control autoclaved sediment was treated in the same manner as the experimental samples. The temporal switch in methane concentration was negligible in the bad control (data not demonstrated). Potential activity was evaluated with the assumption the methane consumption rate is definitely proportional to the partial pressure of methane in the gaseous phase. The rate constant was calculated as follows on the basis of the first-order kinetics. From your assumption is the quantity of methane molecules (mol) is the time (hour) and is the partial pressure of methane in each vial (Pa). From equation 1 and the gas equation (= is the gas constant (8.31 J K?1 mol?1) is the volume of the gaseous phase in each vial (m3) is the incubation temp (K) is defined as which was obtained by approximating the switch in methane concentration with an exponential function based on equation 4 (Fig. 1). Fig. 1 Methane usage by.